To describe the methods used for, cooperation with, assays conducted on, and applications of vaginal specimens collected by older women in their homes. Vaginal self-swab specimen collection and in-home interviews were conducted between and Field methods, consent procedures, the swab protocol, laboratory procedures, and results reporting are described. One thousand twenty-eight respondents
Sellors and R. A thorough understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the cervix is absolutely essential for effective colposcopic practice. This chapter deals with the gross and microscopic anatomy of the uterine cervix and the physiology of the transformation zone. The cervix is the lower fibromuscular portion of the uterus.
While there is a large body of evidence on the effectiveness of Pap smears for cervical cancer screening and on screening for cervical gonorrhea and Chlamydia, there is sparse evidence to support other portions of the pelvic examination and little guidance on examination logistics. Maximizing comfort should be the goal; lubrication use and careful speculum selection and insertion can ease this intrusive procedure. This is particularly important in adolescent and menopausal women, sexual minorities, obese women, women with disabilities, and women with a history of trauma or prior instrumentation affecting the genitalia.